In this study, an internal combustion engine is experimentally analyzed under 100 Nm engine load using biodiesel and diesel fuels. The analyses of energy, exergy and environment are also applied to the internal combustion engine without after treatment system (Engine-Out) and with silicon carbide-based diesel particle filter (SiC-DPF) after treatment system. The impact of the utilization of SiC-DPF on the exhaust emissions and energy, exergy, environmental analyses results are examined. It is determined that (1) the work rate of diesel-fueled engine is higher than the biodiesel-fueled engine. (2) When energy and exergy losses are taken into consideration, the use of SiC-DPF has a positive effect on the emissions of the biodiesel-fueled engine, but it does not have the same effect for the diesel-fueled engine. (3) The biodiesel-fueled engine has higher energy and exergy efficiencies than diesel-fueled engine with and without after treatment systems. (4) In terms of exergy destruction, the results of the diesel-fueled engine have the maximum value with the use of SiC-DPF after treatment system, while the results of the biodiesel-fueled engine have the minimum value with the use of SiC-DPF. This reveals the effectiveness of the use of SiC-DPF after treatment system. (5) The emission rate of CO2 is obtained as maximum for the biodiesel-fueled engine. Also, the minimum CO2 emission rate is determined for the diesel-fueled engine without after treatment system. The use of SiC-DPF contributes to a reduction in CO2 emission for the biodiesel fuel, while it causes an increase for the diesel fuel. (6) The entropy generation rate of the biodiesel-fueled engine is lower than the diesel-fueled engine with and without after treatment options. This study could help future studies on the choice of fuels and utilization of after treatment systems in the internal combustion engines in terms of better environment.
In this study, Japanese Industrial Standard diesel no 2 and waste cooking oil biodiesel fuels are compared in terms of environmental pollution cost analysis. The experiments of the diesel and biodiesel fueled diesel engine are done at 100 Nm, 200 Nm and full load (294 Nm), while engine speed is constant at 1800 rpm. The method used in this study consists of a combination of economic and environmental parameters. According to the analyses, the total environmental pollution cost of the biodiesel is higher than the diesel fuel. On the other hand, the total cost of the CO2 emissions of the diesel fuel is generally found to be higher than biodiesel fuel in terms of the life cycle based environmental pollution cost. The specific environmental pollution cost is found as minimum at full load to be 2.217 US cent/kWh for the diesel fuel and 2.449 US cent/kWh for the biodiesel fuel at full load. On the other hand, the life cycle based specific environmental pollution cost is determined as minimum at full load to be 5.050 US cent/kWh for the diesel fuel and 5.309 US cent/kWh for the biodiesel fuel. The biodiesel fuel has higher values than diesel fuel in terms of the specific environmental pollution cost rates. The maximum total carbon dioxide emission rate is found as 0.2405 × 10−3 kg/kJ for the biodiesel fuel at 100 Nm engine torque and the minimum one is obtained as 0.1884 × 10−3 kg/kJ for the diesel fuel at full load. When the payback periods of the fuels are examined, biodiesel has longer period than diesel. The environmental payback period and life cycle based environmental payback period are also compared for fuels. In this context, the biodiesel has longer environmental payback periods rates than diesel. Consequently, the biodiesel fueled engine has higher environmental pollution cost rates than the diesel fueled engine, while the total carbon dioxide parameter of the diesel fuel is close to the biodiesel fuel’s rate. Also, all of the other environmental parameters of diesel fuel is generally better than biodiesel. Consequently, the diesel fuel is generally better option than the biodiesel considering environmental aspects. For better environmental management, the diesel fuel utilization in the diesel engine is slightly better option than biodiesel fuel in terms of environmental pollution cost analysis.
In this study, the energy and exergy prices of the coal, diesel oil, electricity, fuel oil, LPG, natural gas, air source heat pump (ASHP) and ground source heat pump (GSHP) along with their energetic and exergetic carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents are evaluated basing on 12‐month data of 2016 (from January to December) for residential and industrial sectors in Turkey. Also, they are considered as district heating energy sources/fuels to heat the 100 m2 floor area in the residential and industrial applications. For the residential and industrial sectors, the minimum energy & exergy prices and energetic & exergetic CO2 equivalents are found for the GSHP; while the corresponding maximum energy and exergy rates are obtained for the LPG. Also, the quantity of fuel required for the desired period is calculated for each one of the energy sources. If the residential and industrial sectors are considered together, the minimum amount of required fuel is found for the LPG as 16.3 kg/°Ch; while the maximum one is found for the coal (for residential sector) to be 44.25 kg/°Ch. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 37: 912–925, 2018