Environmental Progress Sustainable Energy, 37(2), 912–925.
Yayın yılı: 2018


In this study, the energy and exergy prices of the coal, diesel oil, electricity, fuel oil, LPG, natural gas, air source heat pump (ASHP) and ground source heat pump (GSHP) along with their energetic and exergetic carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents are evaluated basing on 12‐month data of 2016 (from January to December) for residential and industrial sectors in Turkey. Also, they are considered as district heating energy sources/fuels to heat the 100 m2 floor area in the residential and industrial applications. For the residential and industrial sectors, the minimum energy & exergy prices and energetic & exergetic CO2 equivalents are found for the GSHP; while the corresponding maximum energy and exergy rates are obtained for the LPG. Also, the quantity of fuel required for the desired period is calculated for each one of the energy sources. If the residential and industrial sectors are considered together, the minimum amount of required fuel is found for the LPG as 16.3 kg/°Ch; while the maximum one is found for the coal (for residential sector) to be 44.25 kg/°Ch. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 37: 912–925, 2018